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Hence, vitamins are hair water-soluble or fat-soluble depending on their molecular жмите. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of solutes and solvent.

The enthalpy and entropy changes that occur in the dissolution process are shown in Figures 2A and 2B. In the dissolution process, steps 1 and 2 require energy because interactions between the particles (solute or solvent) are being broken. In general, if the solute and solvent interactions are of similar strength (i. The principles above illustrate why polar vitamins dissolve in water (a polar solvent) and nonpolar vitamins are only soluble in lipids (a nonpolar solvent). Note that there are exceptions to the principle "like dissolves like," e.

In general, it is possible to predict whether a vitamin is fat-soluble or water-soluble by examining its structure and determining whether polar перейти на источник or nonpolar groups predominate.

In the structure of calciferol (Vitamin Http://, shown in Figure 3 below, there is an -OH group attached to a bulky arrangement of hydrocarbon rings and chains.

To view a larger representation of the 2D продолжение здесь 3D structures, click on the name of Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum vitamin. To view and the molecules interactively using Jmol, click on the three-dimensional structures for the coordinate (pdb) file.

Can you predict the solubility properties of each vitamin by examining its structure. The solubility properties of vitamins determine how well they will be Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum by the body.

Water-soluble vitamins can easily enter the bloodstream by diffusion since the stomach contents, extracellular fluid, and blood plasma are all aqueous solutions. Fat-soluble vitamins must be consumed with dietary fat to be absorbed. The vitamins are first dissolved in the dietary fat. Then, bile released from the gall bladder solubilizes dietary fat (with vitamins) in micelles that are absorbed into the blood stream. Some newly-developed food products, however, have been found to disrupt the pathway for absorbing fat-soluble vitamins in the body.

In recent years, many types of "fat-free" foods have come into the marketplace. Some of these products contain non-digestible artificial fats that act as Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum for natural Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum and oils.

The main artificial fat used commercially is Olestra, which is marketed as Olean by Proctor and Gamble, Inc. Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum fat comes from digestion of triglyceride, which consists of three nonpolar hydrocarbon chains (derived from fatty acids) attached to glycerol via ester linkages (Figure страница. An intestinal enzyme, lipase, can break down the ester linkage.

Then, the loose fatty acids are emulsified (by forming micelles Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum the bile juice) and absorbed by the body. Olestra consists of seven to eight fatty acid chains attached to a sucrose molecule and behaves like a fat (Figure 5). However, Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum crowded fatty acid chains block lipase from reaching the sucrose backbone to break down the ester linkages. The Olestra molecule is too large to form absorbable micelles with the bile, so it passes through the intestinal tract, undigested and unabsorbed by the body (and thus adds no calories or Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum to the diet).

Despite the fact that Olestra may Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum uncomfortable gastrointestinal symptoms for some, it was approved by the FDA for use in savory snacks, such as Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum chips, in 1996.

On the left is a 2D ChemDraw representation of a fatty acid molecule, where n is commonly 14 - 16. On the left is a 2D ChemDraw representation of a triglyceride molecule. The glycerol backbone is in blue. The ester linkage Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum in red. When the ester bonds are broken, the triglyceride molecule reacts with H2O and turns into 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. On the left is a schematic 2D- representation of an Olestra molecule. The sucrose backbone is in blue.

For simplicity, only single bonds are shown in the hydrocarbon chains. Many different varieties of olestra molecules Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum been manufactured, some with fewer than eight fatty acids and with different types of fatty acids other than shown in this figure. On the right is a 3D- representation of the same Olestra molecule. Unfortunately, Olestra may not be Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum healthy as it seems. Olestra Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins from food when it is present in the small intestine at Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum same time as other foods.

Because it is nonpolar, Olestra competes with micelles in the intestine for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. Any vitamins that Olestra absorbs are carried out of the body, and are thus not available for the body to use.

Despite the harm Olestra may cause, it could be useful in treating victims of dioxin poisoning. Researchers discovered that Olestra facilitates the removal of dioxins from the body, as it apparently dissolves dioxins similarly to the way it solubilizes fat soluble vitamins and carotenoids. Most minerals in the diet Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum in the form of water-soluble salts. When these salts dissolve, they dissociate into aqueous cations and anions.

It is customary to describe the solubility of these salts (i. To quantify the solubility of the ionic salts containing dietary minerals, two distinct quantities are used: the solubility product (Ksp) and the solubility (S).

The solubility product is the посмотрю, red light therapy может constant of the dissociation reaction of the mineral-containing salt in water.

The solubility of a mineral salt is the amount of the salt that is dissolved per unit volume. This quantity may vary, depending on Stadol (Butorphanol Tartrate)- Multum conditions.

Suppose that you take a zinc supplement in the form of ZnSO4. How does this affect the solubility of ZnSO4.



11.05.2020 in 06:00 nipectna:
Охотно принимаю. На мой взгляд это актуально, буду принимать участие в обсуждении.

12.05.2020 in 20:42 Никанор:
Это отличная идея. Я Вас поддерживаю.


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