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We identified data from linked Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) on a number of chronic illnesses and other conditions me illness have previously been considered to be associated with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, hypertensive disease, me illness mellitus, ischemic heart diseases, other forms of heart disease including адрес failure, me illness lower respiratory me illness (COPD or asthma), and renal failure (see Supplemental Table 1).

Me illness research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource under Application Number 46,228. Although the original application was unrelated to COVID-19 work, an exception was made to me illness these linked data to be used for COVID-19 research without further applications, to maximize the speed of the proposed study.

We calculated the proportion of never smokers, previous smokers and current smokers for each category of baseline characteristics for the full cohort and me illness the cohort who became infected with COVID-19. We fitted multivariable Me illness models. The first model to estimate the incidence risk ratios (IRR) of COVID-19 infection according to smoking status and the second to estimate the IRR me illness death amongst those infected.

We produced non-adjusted models as well as models adjusting for confounding including sex, age, deprivation, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and all of them. To assess the modification effect of age and sex on the association between smoking exposure and COVID-19 me illness, we added multiplicative interaction terms me illness the unadjusted models. We stratified the models by age (below and above the median age 69) and sex where the likelihood ratio test comparing the model with and without the multiplicative interaction terms was statistically significant (2-sided P In these analyses, we contrasted: 1) current smokers against never smokers and 2) previous smokers against never smokers.

Finally, we conducted a sensitivity analysis with only those who me illness positive. The results of this analysis are reported in Supplemental Table 2. The proportion of current smokers me illness with age. Among the men 11. Table 2 shows the incidence risk ratios (IRR) for COVID-19 infection and related mortality according to smoking status.

In total, 192 (0. Previous smoking was similarly associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 infection (Table me illness. Among previous smokers, the risk of COVID-19 me illness was higher among men than women (Figure 2), but there was no me illness difference for current smokers.

Figure 2 Relative risks of COVID-19 infection and subsequent death by sex and age. Similar patterns were observed for previous smokers (Figure 2). To our knowledge, this is the first study to date investigating the association between smoking and risk of COVID-19 infection.

We found that both current and previous smoking were associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection in those aged below 69 whereas there was no difference me illness current smokers, previous smokers and never smokers for those aged me illness and above. The patterns were similar for previous smokers. It is well established that smoking can cause a plethora of respiratory diseases including lung cancer,10 asthma,11 pneumothorax,12 and chronic me illness pulmonary disease.

In tuberculosis, for example, socioeconomic factors are associated with therapy failure and drug resistance, and lead to worse outcomes overall. Yet, our stratified analyses suggest that the relationship between smoking and COVID-19 me illness is complex. We only found an association between smoking and COVID-19 infection in those aged under 69 and similarly for previous smokers, but not for those aged 69 above.

It, me illness, seems plausible that the increased risk of COVID-19 infection in current and previous smokers was associated with increased risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 virus eg via increased occupational exposure rather than increased susceptibility to the virus among smokers. Previous evidence on the impact of smoking on disease progression and me illness amongst COVID-19 patients is mixed and based on studies from me illness different settings.

Yet, the risk me illness COVID-19 death was not much higher me illness current читать than never smokers under 69 years (IRR 1. Similar patterns with me illness were observed for previous smokers. This suggests that the association between smoking and COVID-19 death me illness be multifaceted.

The adverse impact of smoking on COVID-19 death may be due to a me illness weakening of the immune system. However, the elevated risk of dying from COVID-19 among older current smokers and previous smokers, but not among ссылка на страницу aged below me illness suggest other factors may be at play. Unlike most of the published studies that retrospectively reviewed smoking history amongst hospitalized patients with COVID-19, this is the first population-based study which prospectively examined association between smoking status and me illness of being infected by SARS-CoV-2.

Despite not fully representative me illness the whole UK population, participants from UK Biobank are much less prone to significant sampling bias inevitable in me illness studies and enables our findings more generalizable to other settings. Our study has some limitations. First, the identification of COVID-19 infection might be underestimated by using the laboratory-confirmed cases as suggested by the most recent Office for National Statistics.

Second, the Finasteride (Propecia)- FDA information was collected at baseline between 2006 and 2010 and may have changed by 2020 when participants entered this study. However, it is unlikely that people will start smoking after 40 years old, me illness therefore misclassification exposure would limit within current and previous smoking groups, such as switching between current smokers and previous smokers.

Third, this study was conducted among participants aged 49 years or older. Thus, these findings may not be generalizable to younger people whose immune на этой странице may modify the effect of smoking on COVID-19 outcomes, especially given that a noticeable interaction effect of age has been detected.

We found that the risk of COVID-19 infection was elevated for both current and previous smokers under the age of 69, but not for those 69 and above. The clinical implication me illness these findings is that change in smoking habits me illness unlikely to have major impact on the risk of COVID-19 infection. Our study suggests that current and past smoking посетить страницу should also be taken into consideration when assessing the risk of COVID-19 death me illness по ссылке aged 69 and above.

The association between smoking and COVID-19 infection me illness subsequent death is modified by age.



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