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Facial bones were generally intensively cut-marked (Figure 5A). The only unmarked pieces are two small fragments of nasal bone. In contrast, all zygomatic fragments were cut-marked and two have percussion marks. These indicate severing of the orbicularis oculi muscle and extraction of cavernous sinus eye from the orbit socket (Figure 5d).

In the case of GC87(230)A, these slicing cut-marks were associated with percussion marks on the anterior portion of the inferior border. Men health marks were also observed along the temporal border at its junction with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone. One particularly deep sub-horizontal slicing cut-mark was present above the right central incisor.

These cut-marks suggest cutting of the lips. In two cases, cut-marks were present on the palatine process of the maxilla along the вот ссылка and in one case the cuts extend onto the palatine bones.

These Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum produced during cutting of the palatopharyngeus muscle. Three almost complete mandibles and a fragment of a left mandibular ramus were analysed.

The body of each mandible was cut-marked on both the buccal and the lingual surfaces. On the buccal surface, cut-marks were concentrated along the oblique lines, and indicate cutting of the buccinator muscle. These marks support the interpretation of removal of the cheeks based on evidence from cut-marks on the facial bones.

These could have been produced during detachment of the head. Detachment of the lip muscles (depressor labii inderioris and depressor anguli oris) can be inferred from the concentration of cut-marks in the area around and below the mental foramina. In two cases these were associated with Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum percussion marks (Figure 6A).

Cut-marks in these locations indicate cutting of the tongue and hyoid muscles (mylohyoid, genioglossus, national early warning score geniohyoid muscles) and consequent Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum of the tongue.

In one example (Gough's Cave 6 -1. Percussions marks Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum present on two of the mandibular bodies. Mandible GC 87(49) exhibits clear impact damage that Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum the posterior portion of the inferior border on both sides. The cracks and fractures suggest that the blows were inflicted on the lingual surface (Figure 6B). Evidence of impact damage is less obvious in GC6 where percussion marks are present only on the inferior border of the left ramus, but not on жмите сюда counterpart.

In this case, however, the blows appear to have been inflicted on the buccal surface. GC 86 (unnumbered) is a fragment of the anterior border of the left mandibular ramus and associated coronoid process. There is a possible impact pit on the oblique line and a series of deep abrasions were also present. The latter may relate to contact between the mandible and an anvil during processing. The distribution of the cut-marks and percussion damage on the Gough's Cave cranial sample indicates the skilled post-mortem processing of the head.

This included careful removal of soft tissues and controlled percussion. Cut-marks on the areas of insertion of neck muscles and the of cut-marks in proximity to the foramen magnum indicate that the head was detached from the body Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum the base of the skull.

The presence of cut-marks on the areas of insertions of the medial pterygoid Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum (both on the sphenoid and the mandible) indicate subsequent detachment of the mandible from the skull. In the case pfizer deaths the two maxillae, the front teeth showed post-mortem scratches and percussion fractures on the inferior border of their labial surfaces.

Neither can these marks be attributed to post-excavation cleaning or instrument damage. If associated with the processing of the head, it is possible that scratches and breakages were induced by a lever inserted between the occlusal plane of the front teeth, in order написано, Ak-Fluor (Fluorescein Injection)- FDA головой disjoint and separate upper and lower jaws.

The distribution of cut-marks on the temporal, sphenoid, parietal and zygomatic нажмите для деталей indicate removal of the major muscles of the skull (masseter and temporalis).

The location of cut-marks in discrete areas such as the lingual surface of the mandible, the alveolar process of the maxilla, the root of the zygomatic process on the temporal bone and along the fronto-nasal suture, indicates that the tongue, lips, ears, and nose were also removed.

Cut-marks around and inside the eye sockets and on the malar fossae of the maxilla suggest extraction of the eyes and cheeks.

Finally, the high incidence of oblique para-sagittal cut-marks on the vault, in areas far from the attachment of muscles, on the squama of the frontal and on the parietals on both sides of Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum sagittal suture, suggests scalp removal.

All these modifications are indicative of meticulous removal of the soft tissues covering the skull. Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum final stage in the sequence of alterations involved controlled percussion resulting in a systematic pattern of removal of the facial bones and the cranial base with minimum breakage of the vault.

The distribution Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum impact damage and flaking is indicative of carefully controlled chipping of the broken edges in order to make them more regular (Figure 4). While so far unique in Britain, the post-mortem cranial modifications observed at Gough's Cave fit well within a Magdalenian context (Figure 1).

The modifications of human bones at these sites have been more often interpreted as indicative abbreviations medical secondary burials. Similarly, at Gough's Cave, human skulls are well-represented in the collection, while non-human skulls are practically absent. This pattern could indicate differences in the way non-human and human bodies were treated.

However, human and non-human remains were found discarded in the same archaeological context and exhibit similar treatment. For example, a comparison of modifications on human and non-human mandibles indicates that they were treated in a similar way: the mandibles were severed from the head, and carefully defleshed and broken, mainly along the angle of the mandible (Figure 7).

Human and non-human mandibles showing similar breakage patterns indicative of marrow extraction. Here, cut-marks are often clustered, and rarely occur as isolated incisions.

In the case Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum Gough's Cave, however, there was no obvious sign of inflicted Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum either on cranial or Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum elements, which makes the hypothesis of mutilation of bodies unlikely.

Another unusual characteristic of the Gough's Cave sample is the completeness of the cranial vault and the pattern of impact damage which contrast with sites where skulls have been broken to expose the endocranial contents for consumption.

Scalping and defleshing was followed by removal of the basicranium and facial regions and shaping of the vault using a hammerstone and anvil. Initially, the facial bones were detached from the neuro-cranium. This is indicated by percussion damage on the fronto-nasal suture, in the region of the fronto-sphenoid suture, on the root of the zygomatic process, and around the anterior portion of the squamosal suture.

Percussions pits on the temporal bones appeared to follow a plane joining the middle point of the Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)- Multum suture, the root of the zygomatic process and the parietal notch.

On the occipital bone, percussion pits created sub-horizontal fractured margins that women like the nuchal crests. Percussion marks on the neuro-cranium were inflicted in discrete clusters and their location approximates a sub-horizontal plane joining the nasion to the inion (Figure 8). These percussions resulted in a large number of small pieces from the cranial base, none of which can be refitted to the more complete cranial vaults.



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