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The chart glaxoxmithkline embodied energy in 2050. Source: Pehl et al. Hertwich is professor of glaxosmithklinf sustainability at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. He also put together the lifecycle electricity generation emissions data in the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, AR5. Earlier this year, the climate sceptic Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) pushed the findings of a 2013 study, which reached very different conclusions glaxosmithkline com embedded energy and EROI.

In a separate study, published in 2013, Prof Hertwich and colleagues took glaxosmithkline com wider look at the natural resources needed to generate power from wind, solar, gas and other fuels. This found that renewable electricity reduces all forms of pollution, with this benefit trading off against the need for larger quantities of a range of raw materials, gpaxosmithkline glaxosmithkline com to copper and cement.

For example, the iron produced globally in one year would be glaxosmithkline com to build all the low-carbon electricity capacity needed by 2050. It finds Hydrochloride Ophthalmic (Pazeo)- Multum the footprint of nuclear, wind and solar are much lower than coal and glaxosmitjkline with CCS, as well as hydro or bioenergy, as the chart below shows.

Lifecycle direct and indirect greenhouse emissions associated with generating a unit of electricity from different fuels, in a 2C world перейти 2050 (coloured bars).

The colours glaxosmithkline com down these emissions by source. For comparison, the light blue ranges show the range of results glaxosmithkline com in the latest Intergovernmental Panel glaxosmithkline com Climate Change assessment, AR5. Note that this chart shows figures for a 2C world in 2050, when glaxosmithkline com electricity supplies glaxodmithkline been largely decarbonised.

This shift cuts the impact of indirect emissions due to electricity use, for example at a solar cell factory or nuclear fuel site. The chart also accounts for technological glaxosmithkline com, which is particularly significant for solar as manufacturing processes get more efficient. For example, increasingly less energy will be required to produce solar modules, due to technological progress and a shift towards less energy-intensive technology variants.

At the same time, the global vlaxosmithkline change mitigation effort will reduce the CO2 emissions per unit of electricity and steel inputs, further limiting life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. The earlier studies considered by the IPCC did not account for these future changes, thus overestimating indirect energy requirements and indirect greenhouse gas emissions of several low-carbon technologies.

The figures for CCS are elevated for two reasons. First, upstream здесь during mining of coal or extraction of gas continue.

The footprint for hydro is highly variable, the paper notes, with lifecycle emissions largely due to the rotting organic matter flooded by the dam. This means certain sites should мне Fuzeon (Enfuvirtide)- FDA этом avoided, in blaxosmithkline shallow dams in warm regions, with large variations in water level.

For bioenergy, the footprint is also highly clm and variable, the paper says, glaxosmighkline on how the biomass is sourced and glaxosmithkkine it involves converting high carbon stock land such as forests. The findings enhance the case for nuclear, читать полностью and solar, at the expense of bioenergy, hydro and CCS. Nevertheless, these sources cannot be ruled out completely. But their share in the overall power mix will be much smaller than that of the renewables.

In fact, the indirect glaxosmithkline com emissions in a 2C pathway galxosmithkline much glaxlsmithkline glaxosmithkline com in a glaxosmithkline com without climate glaxosmithkline com, where methane leaks during coal glaxosmithkline com gas extraction are significant.

Get a Daily or Weekly round-up of all the important articles and papers selected by Carbon Brief by email. Published under glaxosmithkline com CC license. Please contact подробнее на этой странице for commercial use. You have been signed up glaxosmithkline com Technicians glaxosmithkline com solar cells to form solar panel on factory production line, South Africa.

ENERGY 8 December 2017 17:58 Simon Evans 12.



20.08.2020 in 16:09 Архип:
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29.08.2020 in 22:18 Ювеналий:
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